The Children of Grugliasco

Peter Tannenbaum

In 2015 when the UN Archives did an exhibition for the 70th Anniversary of the United Nations, we displayed some archives of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). Included among them was a picture of young Peter Tannenbaum, and a letter from his father to the Director of UNRRA. The Tannenbaums had survived the Holocaust, and were living in an UNRRA-administered refugee camp in Grugliasco, Italy, where Peter had just been born.

彼得的父亲向联合国善后救济总署寻求帮助,让他的家人在美国定居. 虽然他们最终被重新安置,但是在乌拉圭,而不是美国. Peter however, eventually moved to the USA to study, 他将继续作为弗雷斯诺州立大学的名誉数学教授生活在那里.

当意大利记者亚历山德拉·巴尔迪尼发现在联合国展出的信件和照片时, she tracked down Peter Tannenbaum, 直到那时,他还不知道自己家族的一部分历史被保存在联合国档案馆里. 

亚历山德拉·巴尔迪尼就坦南鲍姆的故事写了一系列出色的文章,甚至成功地把彼得带到联合国档案馆,花了一天时间审查联合国善后援助署的档案, particularly those of Camp 17 in Grugliasco, Italy where he was born. Read more: 

#UN70: in 1947 like today, the S.O.S. of a refugee family in Grugliasco (Turin), 4 Nov 2015

Then and now: a tale of statelessness from 70 years ago, 27 Dec 2015

Then and now (II): life in a refugee camp in Italy 70 years ago, 29 Dec 2015


Robert Eli Rubinstein

在格鲁格里亚斯科17号流离失所者营地出生的许多儿童, Italy, 联合国档案馆只知道一个人写过关于它的文章. Robert Eli Rubinstein describes in An Italian Renaissance: Choosing Life in Canada, his parents’ journey from Hungary to Auschwitz, 然后穿过匈牙利返回,却发现他们的财产被邻居没收了, to an UNRRA refugee camp in Italy, and eventually re-settled in Canada. 这是对他父母的一种崇高的敬意,既讲述了他们的故事,也讲述了他自己寻找自己起源的故事. This search brings him back to the former camp in Grugliasco.

历史学家萨拉Vinçon的工作对他的叙述具有深远的重要性. Sara’s thesis, Vite in transito: Gli ebrei nel campo profughi di Grugliasco(1945-1949)/过境生活:Grugliasco流离失所者营地的犹太人(1945-1949), was published in 2009 and represents if not the only, 肯定是关于格鲁格利亚斯科营历史的杰出学术著作. 萨拉对那些从营地转移过来的人的生活进行了研究,这对罗伯特理解自己的故事至关重要,也让他填补了许多空白. It also laid the groundwork, along with the tremendous support of Maria Teresa De Palma, archivist of the Municipality of Grugliasco, for a meeting some 70 years later of the ‘Children of Grugliasco’ in April, 2017.

虽然罗伯特不能见格鲁格利亚斯科的其他孩子, he did come, 五月份,亚历山德拉·巴尔迪尼应联合国档案馆的邀请访问联合国档案馆,在那里他能够查看关于格鲁格利亚斯科的联合国总联档案精选. Of particular interest to him was a translated article from the Paris newspaper "Combat", on children in the camp that he was born in. It was accompanied by a memo signed by camp director W.J.C. Davidge, whom Robert had heard his mother speak of many times. 他很惊讶,也很感动能够阅读并保存这些原始记录,这些记录记录了他父母战后生活的一段不可思议的时期以及他自己的出生故事.

Click here 去看他父母搬到加拿大时带来的Grugliasco营地的照片. (右图:1947年6月9日,父母朱迪特·鲁宾斯坦和贝拉·鲁宾斯坦结婚). Unlike most of the UNRRA photographs in the UN Archives, 这些照片是由联合国善后救济机构的专业摄影师拍摄的,记录了在难民营的生活和联合国善后救济机构的工作, the Rubinstein’s photographs are much more personal.

Just as he does in his book, when we met him at the UN archives, 罗伯特更多地关注他的父母如何重建他们的生活,而不是他们痛苦的战争经历. It is the fact that they could start over and become successful, 同情和贡献社会的成员,这是难民经历的方面,他希望加强.

His parents, like millions of others, endured unimaginable pain, loss, and suffering during and after the war. Despite that experience however, they were, like millions of others, 通过他们自己的力量和韧性,他们能够重建自己的生活,并以不可思议和有意义的方式加入到他们发现自己所在的新土地上.  

每个幸存者的成功故事都是他们坚持不懈的证明. However, having an organisation such as UNRRA on the ground to provide a safe, if temporary, 为无国籍者和流离失所者提供安置和便利, 是否提醒500彩票国际社会在面对此类危机时的潜力.

世界正处于二战以来最大的难民危机之中, we would be well advised to learn the lessons of UNRRA. Robert told us, 亲眼目睹了父母对他的积极影响, on their community and on their adoptive country, that he will always stand on the side of refugees.

Although UNRRA no longer exists as an organisation, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 现在也在帮助世界各地的难民.


Children of Grugliasco

After some 12 years, 罗伯特·伊莱·鲁宾斯坦和萨拉·Vinçon第一次开始梦想在联合国善后救济机构17号营地出生的孩子们重聚, it finally took place on 6 April 2017.

这一事件在很大程度上是玛丽亚·特蕾莎·德·帕尔马努力工作的结果, archivist of the Municipality of Grugliasco, but had tremendous support from Sara Vinçon, whose research provided information who the “Children” were, by Alessandra Baldini who covered, with great professionalism and a big heart, the story in the ONU Italia web site (see links below), and by Grugliasco Mayor Roberto Montà.

Peter Tannenbaum, Haim Frenkel, Felicia Wax and Sara Guttman, having travelled from around the world, 70年来第一次相聚在他们童年的操场上. The "Children of Grugliasco’s", Facebook group,为其他“孩子”和感兴趣的人提供了加入和连接的能力. 而近东救济工程处的档案本身继续提供一个关键的资源,以查明更多的儿童和家庭来自Grugliasco以及战后存在的所有其他近东救济工程处流离失所者营地.

At the gathering, 格鲁格利亚斯科市长罗伯托·Montà和弗朗西斯科·卡西亚诺将这个小镇的历史与欧洲当前的难民危机联系起来. 

"Elena Loewenthal, cultural attaché at the Italian embassy in Israel, evoked 'a moving story and full of life. 一个美丽的故事,因为人生的故事,难以想象的后果,二战的悲剧.都灵犹太人社区主席达里奥·迪·塞尼强调说... 这不仅是一个过去的故事,也是对500彩票今天的挑战.'"

这些“格鲁格利亚斯科的孩子们”分享了他们对17号营地的回忆:

Peter Tannenbaum: "My parents never talked about the war, but loved to talk of their last three years in Grugliasco. 我妈妈说那是他们生命中最美好的三年他们永远不会离开, but in 1949 they closed the camp." 

海姆·弗伦克尔:“我生在这里是出于命运的巧合,我认为自己有一点都灵”. 

菲利西亚·瓦克斯:“通过他们的故事,我父母教会我去爱意大利."

Grugliasco: a refugee story from 70 years ago strikes a chord, 30 Aug 2016

二战难民儿童回到了格鲁格利亚斯科儿时的游乐场, 2 Apr 2017

Grugliasco onora i bambini del Campo UNRRA 17; Sara, Peter, Felicia, Haim sul prato della loro infanzia, 7 Apr 2017


Thanks to Alessandra Baldini, 感谢Robert Eli Rubinstein和Sara Vinçon与500彩票分享他们的辛勤工作.